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2016职称英语备考关于名词的数

时间:2016-01-06   来源:京华网校

   职称英语考试虽然考得比较基础,但是有些语法我们必须要掌握,这样才能更好更快地完成通过考试,下面为大家介绍语法知识中关于名词的数的讲解。

  重点应了解和掌握以下内容:

  1、名词的可数和不可数:

  与汉语不同,英语中名词要区分可数与不可数。

  笼统地讲,物质名词,如:water(水), iron(铁), wood(木头)等, 和抽象名词,如:democracy(民主), freedom(自由), happiness(幸福)等为不可数。

  不可数名词前不能加a (an),后面不能加s (es),这是考试中对此类题目判断的重要依据。

  2、以下名词为不可数名词:

  news(消息) information(信息)

  furniture (家具) equipment(设备)

  advice (劝告) weather(天气)

  work*(工作) clothing(衣服)

  baggage(行李)

  work作 "工作" 解释时为不可数名词,"找工作"不能说to find a work, 应为to find a job; work作"着作"、"作品"解时是可数名词,如:Deng Xiaopin's works (邓小平着作)/ a work about Deng Xiaopin (一件关于邓小平的作品);作 "工厂" 解释时,单复数同形:a steel works (一个钢铁厂) / two chemical works(两家化工厂)

  实例:

  We have a large staff but there ______ in the office.

  A. haven't many furnitures

  B. aren't many furnitures

  C. hasn't much furniture

  D. isn't enough furniture

  解题思路:根据名词数的概念A、B肯定错,不必考虑;C、D的主要差异是"hasn't"与 "isn't", 句子中有there,说明该句是there be句型,故正确答案为D.题中staff, office 等词与解题无关。

  注意辨别句子中斜体词的数及其意义:

  There is still much room for improvement. (仍有许多改进的余地)

  He has published two important papers on this subject. (他在这个课题上已发表了两篇重要论文。)

  3、以下名词单复数同形:

  means(手段) headquarters(司令部)

  works(工厂) species(物种)

  aircraft(飞机) Chinese(中国人)

  sheep(羊) fish(鱼)

  中国的计量单位:li(里), yuan(元), mu(亩)等

  实例:

  Every means has been tried out, but without satisfactory results. (每个方法都试过了,但结果不令人满意。)

  4、形式上是复数的学科名称,如physics , statistics, dynamics 作单数看待;时间、距离、钞票、重量等复数,可以看作一个整体作单数处理,如:Two days is not enough for me to finish the task. (要我完成此项任务两天是不够的。)

  5、名词做另一名词的修饰语:

  一般用单数形式,如:a college student中的college 为单数形式。

  注意:

  (1) 以下名词做另一名词修饰语时要用复数形式:sport → a sportsman (运动员)/ sale → a sales department(销售部) / savings → a savings account (储蓄存款)/ communication → a communications satellite (通讯卫星) / greeting → a greetings cable(慰问电)

  (2) 不规则名词修饰另一名词时数的变化:a woman doctor (一个女医生) → two women doctors (两个女医生) / the Chinese women's volleyball team (中国女排) / a children hospital (儿童医院)

  6、family(家庭), group(小组), police(警察),committee(委员会), team(组), box(盒), audience(观众)等词,可以是单数,也可以是复数,关键要看题目所给的提示,例如:

  The whole box of matches _____ wet; I couldn't light a simple one

  A. was

  B. is

  C. were

  D. are

  解题思路:这道题如果没有后半句I couldn't light a simple one,是没办法解答的。这句话提示了两点:

  (1)时态为"过去时",故B、D已不可能了;

  (2)"a simple one"说明是指盒子内的一根根火柴,故答案为C.试想,如果我们把后半句改为 "I had to throw it away", 那么正确答案应是A.

  所以,看清题目的提示对于解题是非常重要的。

  7、注意以下表达方式中名词的复数形式

  to be / make friends with(友好 / 交朋友)

  to change places with (交换位置)

  to make preparations for(为…作准备)

  to give regards to(向…问好)

  to make matters worse(把事情弄糟)

  to hurt feelings(伤害感情)

  to be all smiles(满脸堆笑)

  to take sides (偏袒某方)

  to have words with(吵架)

  to burst into tears (突然哭了)

  8、量词的使用:

  由于英语中名词分可数与不可数,量词的使用也有区别:

  修饰可数名词

  (a) few / fewer / fewest

  many / more / most

  a great (good) many

  many a

  a number of

  the number of

  既可修饰可数名词 也可修饰不可数名词

  a lot of / lots of

  plenty of (time, money, people)

  修饰不可数名词

  (a) little / less / least

  much / more / most

  a great (good) deal of

  an amount of / amounts of

  the amount of

  量词使用中应注意的几个问题:

  1) 分清可数名词和不可数名词是前提;

  2) 不要把量词的形式搞混淆了:下面哪个表达形式是对的?

  A. A lot students have come back from the summer holiday.

  B. A few of the students have come back from the summer holiday.

  C. A great many of students have come back from the summer holiday.

  D. Many a student has have come back from the summer holiday.

  E. The number of students have come back from the summer holiday.

  F. A number of students have come back from the summer holiday.

  以上六个表达方式中只有F 是对的。为什么?

  A. a lot students → a lot of students

  B. a few of the students → a few students

  C. a great many of students → a great many students

  D. Many a student has come back from the summer holiday.

  E. The number of 表示数目,如:The number of the students in our class is 50.

  A number of 表示"一些","不少",认真对比一下,看出问题来了吗?

  问多少钱、多少重量时用:How much…?问距离时用:How far is it from…to…?

  9、单位词的使用

  (1) 不可数名词表示多少,一般用much, (a) little, a lot of, enough 等词表达,要数1,2,3,4…时要用"量词"表达,最常用的是a piece of (news, advice, furniture, information…)。

  (2) 成双成对的名词一般用复数,如:a pair of trousers (裤子) / scissors(剪刀) / glasses (spectacles)(眼镜) / pliers(钳子)

  (3) a couple of表示一对,或2-3…,如:a couple of days / people / things

  (4) 记住以下量词表达方式:

  a loaf (two loafs) of bread (一个(两个)面包)

  a burst of laughter(一阵笑声)

  a fit of anger / chill(一阵发怒 / 发冷)

  a game of chess (一盘棋)

  a lump of sugar (一块方糖)

  10、其他应注意的数的表达形式

  1)a three-year-old boy 比较The boy is three years old

  2) five thousand people / several thousand people比较 thousands of people

  表达具体数字时,thousand不加 "s",后面不加 "of "; ten, million, billion情况以此类推。

  3) One-third of the students have passed College English Test Band IV.

  Two-thirds of the students have passed College English Test Band IV.

  One-third of the population in this area is living below the poverty line.

  (这个地区有1/3人口生活在贫困线以下。)

  注意:几分之几的表达形式;动词的单复数由后面的名词数决定。

  4) a looker-on 比较two lookers-on(旁观者) / a brother-in-law比较two brothers-in-law(姻亲兄弟)

  5) my father, together with (along with / with / as well as my mother and brothers) 结构中,主语作单数处理,即my father

  11、不定代词的数

  英语中要对 "2 "这个数特别敏感:

  1) 两个中一个、另一个: one , the other; 三个或三个以上中另一个:another / any one

  2) 两个都:both; 两个都不:neither; 两个中任一个:either

  3) 三个或三个以上都:all; 都不:none

  4) 不知总数:一些:some ;另一些:others(有余数)

  5) 知道总数:一些:some ; 另一些 (没有余数了):the others

  注意以下表达方式:each other / one another / one after another / one by one / the other day (过去的某一天)/ some day (今后的某一天) / every other day (隔天)/ on alternative days(隔天)/ someone else (别人) / something (anything, nothing) else (别的事)

  实例:

  I'm sorry, I'm a stranger, too. You may ask ______ across the street.

  A. another one

  B. others

  C. the other one

  D. someone else

  解题思路:虽然A、B、C没有语法错误,但D是习惯表达方式。

       通过以上详细介绍,大家对名词的数应该有了比较深刻的了解,祝大家顺利通过职称英语考试

 


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